Asian Journal of Probability and Statistics https://www.journalajpas.com/index.php/AJPAS <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Journal of Probability and Statistics (ISSN: 2582-0230)</strong> aims to publish high-quality papers (<a href="/index.php/AJPAS/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Probability and Statistics’. By not excluding papers on the basis of novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Asian Journal of Probability and Statistics en-US Asian Journal of Probability and Statistics 2582-0230 Examining the Factors Affecting the Success of the Establishment of Village-Owned Enterprises https://www.journalajpas.com/index.php/AJPAS/article/view/30358 <p><strong>Aims: </strong>This study aims to analyze the influence of Village Government Policies, Village Financial Institutions, Resources, and Community Factors on the Success of the Establishment of Village-Owned Enterprises (VOE) with Village Government Support as moderating variables.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>SEM WarpPLS.</p> <p><strong>Place:</strong> Sumberputih Village, East Java, Indonesia.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>This research is quantitative research. The research instrument used a questionnaire. The research was conducted in Sumberputih Village, East Java, Indonesia. The sampling process used a simple random sampling technique and obtained 100 respondents. Data analysis using SEM WarpPLS.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The results showed that the Village Government Policy, Village Financial Institutions, Resources, and Community Factors had a significant effect on the success of the establishment of VOE (Y). Meanwhile, Village Government Support cannot moderate the influence of the four variables on the success of VOE establishment.</p> . Solimun Indah Yanti Adi Kusumaningrumi Agus Wahyu Widodo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-16 2021-11-16 1 9 10.9734/ajpas/2021/v15i430358 Split Domination In Interval-valued Fuzzy Graphs https://www.journalajpas.com/index.php/AJPAS/article/view/30360 <p><strong>Aims / Objectives:</strong> In this paper, we introduced and investigated the concept of split domination in interval-valued fuzzy graph and denoted by γs. We obtained many results related to γs. We investigated and study the relationship of γs with other known parameters in interval-valued fuzzy graph. Finally we calculated γs(G) for some standard interval valued fuzzy graphs.</p> Nojood A. AL-Khadari Mahiuob M. Q. Shubatah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-18 2021-11-18 10 20 10.9734/ajpas/2021/v15i430360 Bayesian Regression of Government Expenditure on Revenue in Nigeria https://www.journalajpas.com/index.php/AJPAS/article/view/30361 <p>The relationship between government expenditure and its revenue is generating serious debate among researchers. Similarly, their has been a controversy between the classical and the bayesian modelling. Therfore, this study examined the relationship between the government expenditure and its revenue in Nigeria using the bayesian approach. The finance data extracted from the Central Bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin from 1989 to 2018 were considered for the study. Bayesian linear regression was used to fit the model. Normal distribution was fit for the likelihood. Thus, normal-gamma prior was elicited for the bayesian regression parameters. The result showed that the Bayesian estimates with elicited normal-gamma prior produced a better posterior mean of 0.536 for the Total Revenue with a smaller posterior standard deviation of 0.00001 when compared with the OLS standard deviation of 0.05256. Similarly, the total revenue explained 78% variations in the Total expenditure. The constructed model fit was: Total Expenditure = 98.57128 + 0.53630* Total Revenue. This showed that a naira unit of the total expenditure will always be increased by 0.54 of the total revenue. Forecast of 30 years for the total expenditure using both OLS and Bayesian (normal gamma prior) were increasing as the years were progressing. Government should look for a way to increase its revenue in order to sustain the future expenses of the government since expenditure increases yearly.</p> Olawale Basheer Akanbi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-20 2021-11-20 21 37 10.9734/ajpas/2021/v15i430361 Probabilistic Method for Estimating the Level of Reliability of Solar Photovoltaic Systems for Households in Ghana https://www.journalajpas.com/index.php/AJPAS/article/view/30362 <p>Renewable Energy Resources have been identified among the most promising sources of harnessing power for industrial and household consumption but their power generations highly uctuate so building renewable power systems without critical reliability analysis might result in frequent blackouts in the power system. Therefore, in this paper, a robust, effective and ecient design approach is proposed to handle the reliability issues. The study involves a Mathematical modelling strategy of the PV system to estimate the total PV power produced and the Bottom-Up approach for predicting the household load demand. The reliability is defined in terms of Loss of Load Probability. The design methodology was validated with a University Household. The data used for the analysis consists of daily average global solar irradiance and load profiles. The results revealed that throughout the year, November-February is where the system seems to be more reliable. Also, the results indicated that without buck-up systems, the system would experience an average annual power loss of 17.8753% and thus, it is recommended that either solar batteries or the grid are used as backup system to achieve a complete level of reliability.</p> Ali Abubakar Anas Musah Frank Kofi Owusu Isaac Afari Addo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-22 2021-11-22 38 53 10.9734/ajpas/2021/v15i430362 The Second Hyper-Zagreb Index of Complement Graphs and Its Applications of Some Nano Structures https://www.journalajpas.com/index.php/AJPAS/article/view/30364 <p>In chemical graph theory, a topological descriptor is a numerical quantity that is based on the chemical structure of underlying chemical compound. Topological indices play an important role in chemical graph theory especially in the quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR). In this paper, we present explicit formulae for some basic mathematical operations for the second hyper-Zagreb index of complement graph containing the join G<sub>1</sub> + G<sub>2</sub>, tensor product G1&nbsp;$$\otimes$$ G2, Cartesian product G1 x G2, composition G1&nbsp;$$\circ$$ G2, strong product G1 * G2, disjunction G1 V G2 and symmetric difference G<sub>1</sub>&nbsp;$$\oplus$$ G<sub>2</sub>. Moreover, we studied the second hyper-Zagreb index for some certain important physicochemical structures such as molecular complement graphs of V-Phenylenic Nanotube V PHX[q, p], V-Phenylenic Nanotorus V PHY [m, n] and Titania Nanotubes T<em>i</em>O<sub>2</sub>.</p> Mohammed Alsharafi Yusuf Zeren Abdu Alameri ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 54 75 10.9734/ajpas/2021/v15i430364 An Application of the Growth Model to HIV/AIDS Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy with Coinfections in a District Hospital in Ghana https://www.journalajpas.com/index.php/AJPAS/article/view/30365 <p>Lethal opportunistic diseases like Tuberculosis and Hepatitis C are deeply ingrained complications for patients diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).&nbsp; The effect of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) on Hepatitis C and Tuberculosis in HIV patients in Ghana continues to be unpredictable, especially in younger patients. This study aimed to describe the patient survival time distribution on antiretroviral treatment using Statistical Growth model. A retrospective cohort of 634 patients aged between 22 to 73 years were selected from the District Health Information Management System 2 (DHIMS 2), a secondary source, using a random sampling approach. These patients were diagnosed with HIV and started antiretroviral therapy between 2000 and 2019 at St. Martins Catholic Hospital in Amansie South District of the Ashanti Region. The probability of survival for almost all of the risk factors decreases gradually at different clinical states, i.e., from state 1 through to state 4. Hepatitis C or Tuberculosis can also be diagnosed chronically in approximately one in ten patients. Age, sex and the CD4 cell count of patients substantially (p- value =0.001 in log-rank tests) contributed to the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus. Survival of infants, aged &lt;1year, after treatment was of negative effect. The statistical growth analytical approach offers a good estimate of survival rate ( 79.82%) among major risk factors for infants, aged &lt;1yearon ART with proportion of survival growth of 0.95, hence the survival time of infants, aged &lt;1yearon HAART is negatively affected irrespective of the treatment initiation period.</p> Michael Fosu Ofori Aliyu Mohammed Kofi Mensah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-12-01 2021-12-01 76 87 10.9734/ajpas/2021/v15i430365